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    Cooperative Development

    Interested in non judgemental discourse methods for development ?

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Next Ragged University Events:

All are welcome to do a talk or an activity in which you share what you are passionate about. Share what you enjoy and have invested your life in. Drop us an email if you would like to do a talk...

31st May Edinburgh: Come along to Cabaret Voltaire (36-38 Blair St, Edinburgh, EH1 1QR), doors open at 6.30pm and the talk starts from 7pm. Come along for a bite of food, a chance to hear Richard Gunn's thoughts on 'The Philosophy of Mutual Recognition'…. CLICK HERE FOR MORE INFO

5th June Manchester: Come along to The Castle Hotel (66 Oldham St, Manchester, M4 1LE) from 7pm to 10pm to enjoy a talk, some food and some music. Hugh Peters will be telling us about 'Music, Mathematics and the Harmony of the Spheres'.... CLICK HERE FOR MORE INFO


People are welcome to guest blog; there are no editors, only authors here - no commerical blogging though

An Essay on the History of Written Language: Ivory Towers and Mythical Landscapes

This is an essay on the history of written language, it starts with a look at the mysterious figure of Socrates and his discussion of the god Thoth, reputed in myth to have created language.  This has been chosen as a starting point as this essay is already out of its depth in suggesting that such a subject can be tackled adequately.  We find ourselves confronted with the study of history and the art of historiography – what stories are told and how truely they hold any facts.  The most useful tool here will be a helping of doubt upon which a healthy scepticism to question things.

When I started this small, amateur study, I had no idea how much of a complicated subject it was.  It seemed on the surface simple.  As I went on trying to find the bottom of this endless story, the narrative(s) kept on revealing to me a million more roots and avenues to pursue.  Neither did I understand that it was so much of a political question to pursue either, and that, in my pursuit for the antique origins of written language I discovered the sage guidance of Wendy and Warwick Ball – friends of history, who were kind enough to guide me towards understandings that I have chosen to try and fit an ocean in a cup… Read more

Ethnocentrism and Country of Origin Effects: Ethnocentrism and Consumers by Doreen Soutar

This literature review is divided into three main sections: This section looks at The Country of Origin (COO) Effect…

Shankarmahesh (2006) suggested that ethnocentrism can be the result of a combination of four issues: socio-psychological, economic, political and socio-demographic.

Socio-demographic issues

Erdogan & Uzkurt (2010) found that ethnocentrism varies with socio-demographic and biological variations, such as gender, age, education, and income. They also discovered that individuals who tend to be less ethnocentric in general tend to have more favourable attitudes, beliefs and intentions towards foreign products. Watson & Wright (2000) suggest that older, female, less wealthy and less educated individuals are more likely to be ethnocentric, and the opposite is also the case. Read more

Music: Electrobuddha

Been going now since March 2012 whereupon Mark McCaffer the founder took a Business Gateway loan of a £1000, bought an electric and semi-acoustic guitar and started a semi-professional band. Mark studied vocals at Strathclyde and graduated with honours. Drummer and 2nd band member

Graeme Proctor amasses a great history of drums and percussion and has played with many acts and genres in and around west/central Scotland. He is a graduate of North Glasgow College. Read more