Navigate / search

  • bookcase
    A Study of Multiple Sclerosis: A Bibliography by Alex Dunedin

  • presocratic philosophers
    Common Sense: A Theory of Inherent Knowledge

  • scientific method
    The Traditional, the Contemporary and Orthodoxy

  • set theory
    The Common Instruments of Knowledge

  • pen

    Edinburgh

    Join the Meetup events newsletter and get informed about upcoming events Sign Up...

  • customers

    Meetup

    Find independent groups and events running in your area which are free Read More...

  • pencil

    Manchester

    Join the Meetup events newsletter and get informed about upcoming events Sign Up...

Next Ragged University Events:

At the moment time is being taken to develop the content for the website and plan future activities.


All events are recorded to enable a podcast for those who cannot leave their houses, those who cannot make it, and to create an free online resource for anyone to tap into


Thermodynamics the Salford Way by Simon Ward

I had decided to write this article on very much a local pioneer of physics and thermodynamics, I had missed that Joule lived in Manchester and Salford until another Ragged University member pointed it out. I wish to thank Connor for this useful piece of crowd sourcing when we were discussing this outside Gulliver’s.

James Prescott Joule was born in Salford on Christmas Eve 1818 to a brewing family. He studied mathematics under John Dalton who was a pioneer with the periodic table and atomic theory. As a child he was fascinated by electricity and he and his brothers would give each other electric shocks, and also to unsuspecting servants. He would also fly kites in thunderstorms to try and “capture electricity”, but eventually decided this was too dangerous. This expanded into experiments with electricity and magnetism in the cellar of the family home in Pendlebury. Read more

Science and Knowledge

There are other methods of discovering and learning knowledge about nature, but science is the only method that results in the acquisition of reliable knowledge.

Reliable knowledge is knowledge that has a high probability of being true because its veracity has been justified by a reliable method. Reliable knowledge is sometimes called justified true belief, to distinguish reliable knowledge from belief that is false and unjustified or even true but unjustified. Read more